OpenAIS researched user expectations, derived requirements and use cases and created a fully CoAP / IoT based lighting controls and communication architecture seamlessly working on all physical internet media. The architecture closes the identified gaps between the existing IoT frameworks and the domain specific requirements from the lighting industry. The architecture has been verified by a full-scale office lighting system, including presence, daylight and user control at a real office space, also including smartphone control through user Apps and an Integration in a standard BMS- System.
The most critical new architecture solutions that OpenAIS designed and introduced to cover the requirements for professional indoor lighting, namely out-of-the-box operation, low latency secure large group control, local control resilience and peak bandwith control in multi-PHY IPv6 based systems, have been proven to work sufficiently well.
The stakeholder and user research identified three main success elements for IP based lighting controls: “Easy life”, “increased building value” and “building wide ecosystem”. All three include life-cycle aspects that need technological and communication flexibility that allow the adaptation of the system over the deployment lifecycle.
- The request for Easy life asks for open APIs that allows for various Application and User Interface generations, for simplicity in design, implementation and operation and for security measures one can rely on.
- The request for increased building value asks for visible and sustained value of the investment, and for adjustable functionality and related operational expenses according to need during the life cycle. This includes all kind of future cloud-based mining and related preference interactions.
- The request for a building wide ecosystem very much supports application neutral IP based communication systems, with open object models and API’s, that allow seamless profit from data-integration across today’s application silo’s, and that are open for multiple parties to provide adjusted support for specific needs.
A key innovation of the OpenAIS Architecture achievement is the low latency group communication OGC (OpenAIS Group Communication), that allows to deliver lighting commands to many controlled light points in parallel. In addition to resolving the latency and scalability issues, OGC provides the base for an elaborated out-of-the-box operation that supports the electrical contractor best, and induces operational compatibility across different IoT frameworks and their (future) versions. Using OGC a low latency local “group agent” for User Interfaces and distant (e.g. cloud based) control is made available, that also provides the needed fast response and resilient operation of the lighting when the connection to cloud control is lost or slow.
The full featured Lighting Controls Object Model supports the use of OGC to its best by providing bandwidth optimized status information transport together with a systematic support for complex controls requirements, e.g. when controlling a center luminaire of crossing aisles or by e.g. applying node based priority schemes for integrated emergency lighting features.
The security and privacy design of OGC is designed to provide sufficient protection independently from firewalls, so the future principles of “deep defense” have been anticipated and already integrated.
These principles are applicable to support other building controls services in the future, and we expect they may be picked up once also the BMS services start moving towards an open CoAP / IP based architecture.
For the application layer of the OpenAIS project, a dedicated Object Model was developed, as investigations showed that public models like IPSO were much too limited for advanced high quality lighting control and simple integration into BMS’s.
The architecture showed its great potential by serving a full featured full-scale office lighting control system (400 luminaires with embedded sensors). It was validated and demonstrated in a real-life pilot in an industrial heritage buiding, the “White Lady” building in Eindhoven. Despite the many technical challenges encountered in the realization phase, OpenAIS succeeded in deploying a fully operational multi-vendor lighting control system, based on IoT-standards and frameworks, with IP connection to the end node. This system combined wired and wireless devices from multiple vendors in a single system connected through a standard IT-network with commercial off-the-shelve IT components. The openness of the system was validated by the integration of several additional components, commissioning tooling and user applications, by parties outside the main lighting manufacturers from the consortium, that seamlessly worked together.
Final Research on user satisfaction showed positive reaction of involved users. However, some technical attention points for future product development and system designs remain, especially the standby energy of the equipment and the IP interfaces of the nodes will need some more progress before the energy data of sophisticated heritage systems can be matched.
- Final Report (D7.6), 11 July 2018
Summary of the overall results and achievements of the OpenAIS project.
Pilot implementation and validation reports:
- Pilot Specification (D5.1), 19 December 2017
Charts the development of the OpenAIS live pilot specification, the search for the pilot location and the final selection of White Lady location in Eindhoven in cooperation with the tenant GGD-BZO.
- Report on selected scenarios and use cases (D1.1), updated 19 July 2016
Describes the results and process of collecting the user scenarios for the 2020's from the perspective of the different stakeholders in the lighting value chain. The scenarios were summarized in 3 super scenarios.
- Value Chain Impact Analysis Report (D1.5)
The Internet of Lighting is expected to have a significant impact on the lighting value chain as we know it today. This report explores how the OpenAIS solution can potentially have impact on the value network. First, the current lighting value network, including stakeholders and their added value, is analysed according to four phases. Secondly, the potential short term impact of OpenAIS is explored. Finally, the role of OpenAIS in future society is explored according to four perspectives.
- Final Reference architecture of OpenAIS system (D2.7), final update 13 Mar 2018
The related "OpenAIS Object Model“ that shows the API structure and is essential for interoperable systems, is also part of this document.
OpenAIS is an open service oriented IP-based lighting architecture that allows system designers in the professional lighting domain the freedom to design the systems they want to offer, while simultaneously ensuring interoperability between the components from different vendors by specifying minimum application and infrastructure layer requirements.
Please note that this reference architecture is is not a system design in itself but a template for multiple concrete system designs. The document also includes notes to guide example implementations well.
The previous version Reference architecture of OpenAIS system (D2.3), updated 19 July 2016, is now depreciated.
- Final architecture for Low Power Radio Access Point (D2.6)
Defines a reference architecture that allows vendors to build Low Power Radio Access Points using COTS hardware and open-source software. Primary goal of LPR AP is to enable easy integration of the OpenAIS network into existing IT infrastructure with minimal overhead. The dual-board architecture of LPR AP abstracts the complexities involved with low power wireless networks based on different PHY/MAC technology by providing a unified interface to IT backbone networks.
- State of the art overview in solid state lighting (D2.1)
Povides an overview of the state of the art in terms of technologies, system architectures, standards and running initiatives relevant for the scope of the OpenAIS project: to enable the Internet of Lights for office buildings of 2020 and beyond, incorporating Solid State Lighting and Internet of Things (IoT) concepts and technology. The document is available on request.
- Implementation & verification guidelines for the architecture (D2.2)
Explains and justifies the decision making process how the OpenAIS architecture deals with the functional and non-functional requirements for different stakeholders in the lighting value chain.
System Integration reports:
- FMEA and Hazard analysis report (D4.2)
It reports the result of the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and hazard analysis activities conducted on an example system designed out of the OpenAIS reference architecture. For hazard identification, Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Studies has been adopted. The main outcomes - the FMEA analysis report and the HAZOP study report, will be used for system design reviews and risk mitigation activities.
- Risk analysis report and definition of required test-ups (D4.3), updated 19 July 2016
Explains the risk assessment methods and provides a risk analysis report highlighting the risks identified from FMEA analysis. Defines a test methodology based on a test architecture that allows for continuous integration and testing, using test automation frameworks.
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